Masters Programs

MS Physics

Program Educational Objectives (PEO)

The educational objectives of the MS Physics program are: 

  • The graduates would interpret the scientific data resulting from variety of physical phenomena.
  • The graduates would be capably utilize the variety of experimental and analytical techniques supporting the commercial and professional research circles.
  • The graduates would competently deliver existing knowledge in academic circles.

Program Learning Objectives (PLOs)





Physics and Knowledge

An ability to apply knowledge of Physics to address the industrial and everyday life problems.


Problem Analysis and Reasoning

An ability to survey existing literature, identification of gaps, permissible solution of problems to substantiate conclusions.


Investigation Tools

An ability to interact with methodological, experimental and computational advancements facilitating the permissible solutions.


Physics and Environment

An ability to demonstrate the applicability of physical rigors in developing ecofriendly products.



An ability to communicate effectively the outcomes of Physical pathways.


Project Execution 

An ability to design and execute a research project as an independent researcher in a multidisciplinary environment.



Code Course Title Credit Hours
 PH-5001  Methods of Mathematical Physics  3
 PH-5002  Material Physics  3
 PH-5003  Advanced Electrodynamics  3
 PH-5004  Nanoscience and Techniques  3
  Total  12


Code Course Title Credit Hours
 PH-5005  Methods and Techniques of Experimental Physics   3
 TEX-5078  Funtional Textile  2
 -  Elective - I  3
 -  Elective - II  3
 -  Elective - III  3
   Total  14

Semester III & IV

Code Course TitleCredit Hours
 PH-5090  MS Thesis  6
  Total Credit Hours  32

Course Specifications

PH-5001:  Methods of Mathematical Physics

Fourier series: Introduction and general properties, the convergence of trigonometric series, Integral transform development of the Fourier integral, Fourier transform, inversion theorems, Fourier transform of derivatives, Laplace transforms, Laplace transform of derivatives, inverse Laplace transform. Differential equations: Separation of variables in three dimensions, Boundary value problems, Green’s functions, Integral transforms, generating functions, and integral equations. Calculus of variations: dependent and independent variables, Euler-Lagrange equation and applications, several independent and dependent variables, Diffusion equation, Heat Equations, Wave equations, some nonlinear equations, Klein-Gordon equation, sine-Gordon equation Burgers equation, Backlund transformation, Tensor and vector fields, Differential geometric methods.

Recommended Books:

  1. Alexander, Mathematics for Physicists Introductory Concepts and Methods, Cambridge University Press
  2. Arfken & Weber, Mathematical Methods for Physicists, Academic Press, 6th edition.
  3. Tai L. Chow, Mathematical Methods for Physicists, Cambridge University Press, latest edition.
  4. G. B. Arfken and H. J. Weber, Mathematical Methods for Physicists, Academic Press, New York latest edition.
  5. G. Stephenson and P. M. Radmore, Advanced Mathematical Methods for Engineering and Science Stu dents, Cambridge University Press latest edition.

PH-5002:  Material Physics

Bonding in Elemental Materials Covalent, Metallic and van der Waals Bonding), Bonding in Multi element Materials (Ionic, Mixed Ionic-Covalent Bonding, Hydrogen Bonding), Effects of Nature of Bonding on Materials Properties. Basic Structural and Symmetry Concepts, Concept of Diffraction in a Periodic Lattice, Structural Information from X-ray Diffraction, and other Diffraction Techniques. Crystal Structures of Metals and Ceramic Materials. Point Defects (vacancies, interstitials, impurities, F-centers) and their stability Line and Extended Defects (Dislocations, Grain Boundaries, Stacking Faults, Interfacial, Surface and Volumetric Defects). Effect of Defects on the Properties of Materials.: Amorphous Materials / Glasses (Glass formation, Glass Transition, and Crystallization of Glasses, Various Glass Forming Systems). Random Closed Packing in Metallic Glasses, Continuous Random Network in Covalent Glasses. Basic Concepts, Equilibrium Phase Diagrams, Phase Transformations – Basic Concepts, Kinetics, Metastable versus Stable Transformations, Microstructure Development, Precipitation, and Dispersion Hardening, Multi-Component and Multi-Phase Systems, Alloys, Equilibrium Structures, Phase Separation. 

Recommended Books:

  1. WD Callister & DG Rethwisch, Materials Science and Engineering, latest edition.
  2. J.I. Gersten and F. W. Smith, The Chemistry of Materials, publisher John Wiley& Sons Inc, latest edition.
  3. M.W. Barsoum, Fundamentals of Ceramics, IOP Publishing Ltd, latest edition.
  4. Richard Zallen, Theory of Amorphous Solids, publisher John Wiley & Sons Inc, latest edition.
  5. D.I. Bower, An Introduction to Polymer, publisher Cambridge University Press, Cambridge latest edition.

PH-5003:  Advanced Electrodynamics

Electric field due to a dipole, Electric potential due to a dipole, potential energy of a dipole in an external electric field. The mutual interaction energy of two dipoles, Force and couple on the dipole placed in an external electric field, multiple expansion of the electric field. Polarization and polarization density vector, Surface and volume charge density due to the polarization of dielectric, The electric field outside and inside of a dielectric medium. Gauss’s law in dielectric and electric displacement vector, electric susceptibility, Boundary conditions on field vectors for two media. Boundary value problems involving dielectrics, Solution of Laplace equation Microscopic theory of dielectrics: Molecular field in a dielectric. Ferroelectricity, Steady current in a continuous media, approach to electrostatic equilibrium of a conductor. magnetic properties of matter, magnetization, the magnetic field produced by magnetized material, magnetic susceptibility, and permeability. Magnetic boundary conditions on field vectors, the molecular field inside matter, the origin of diamagnetism. Origin of Paramagnetism, Theory of ferromagnetism, ferromagnetic domains, ferrites. Magnetic scalar potential, magnetic vector potential, the magnetic field of a distant circuit. Electromagnetic induction, Physical significance of Maxwell’s equations, Maxwell’s equations, and their empirical basis. Electromagnetic field energy, the wave equation, Generalized amperes law,  scalar, and vector potentials and gauge transformations, wave equations for scalar and vector potential retarded scalar, and vector potential. Boundary conditions of electromagnetic waves propagation of electromagnetic waves, plane monochromatic waves in non-conducting media, polarization, plane monochromatic waves in conducting media. Reflection and refraction at the boundary of two non-conducting media, reflection and refraction at the boundary of two conducting media. Radiation from an oscillating dipole, radiation from the half-wave antenna and their applications, Design, and Simulation of a dipole antenna, Patch antenna and horn antenna, and EMI shielding.                    

Recommended Books:

  1. J.D. Jackson. John, Classical Electrodynamics, Wiley latest edition.
  2. J.B. Marion and M.A. Heald, Classical Electromagnetic Radiation, Thomson Brooks, latest edition.
  3. Reitz, Milford and Christy, Foundation of Electromagnetic theory, latest edition.

PH-5004: Nanoscience and Techniques

Introduction to Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. Difference between bulk and nanomaterial. Nanoparticle (Origin, Chemical composition, Shape, Surface modification, aggregation state, Nanoparticles in nature. There is plenty of space at the bottom: Introduction to properties on nanoparticles (Size, Reactivity, Surface area to volume ratio, Magnetism). Nanoparticles at different size levels. Size-dependent properties of nanoparticles: Nanoparticles in different dimensions, Top-down approach, bottom-up approach. Surface to volume ratio, Quantum confinement. Magnetic properties of nanoparticles: Magnetic dipoles, Magnetic fields, Magnetic forces/units. Super para-magnetism, Magnetic moment. Thermal Properties of Nanomaterials: Melting point of nanomaterials, Cohesive energy, Cohesive energy for ideal case, Cohesive energy for bulk material, Surface area of magnetic nanoparticles, Shape factor, Cohesive energy of the metallic crystal. Calculation of Cohesive energy of solids & melting temperature of bulk matter. Optical properties of nanoparticles: Optical properties of metal, Optical properties of non-metal, Localized surface plasmonic resonance (LSPR) in metals. Mechanical properties of Nanomaterials: Strength, Yield Strength, Tensile strength, Ductility, Toughness. Elongations, Elastic Deformation, Tensile test Curve. Hall-Patch Relationship. Hall Patch strengthening limits. Synthesis of Nanomaterials: Bottom-up and top-down approaches and the synthesis methods in these two approaches. Composite materials

Recommended Books:

  1. L. Wolf Edward, Nanophysics and Nanotechnology: An Introduction to Modern Concepts in Nanoscience WILEY-VCH.
  2. Gabor L. Hornyak, Introduction to Nanoscience, ISBN-13: 978-1420048056.
  3. Alain Nouailhat, An Introduction to Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, ISTE Ltd, latest edition.
  4. Challa S, S. R. Kumar, Nanomaterial Toxicity, Health, and Environmental Issues, latest edition.
  5. Daniel L. Schodek, Paulo Ferre, Nanomaterials, Nanotechnologies and Design” An Introduction for Engineers, latest edition.


PH-5005:  Methods and Techniques of Experimental Physics

Basics of X-ray diffraction, X-ray spectra, Bragg’s law and importance, construction and operation of diffractometer, data analysis, Qualitative (Hanawalt method), Quantitative (matrix flushing methods). Characterization techniques, Basics of spectroscopy and importance, Lambert-Beer’s law, Construction and Operation of a spectrophotometer, Radiation detection (Detectors), Data analysis. Construction and Operation of Scanning Electron Microscope, Construction, and Operation of Atomic Force Microscope, Construction and Operation of Transmission Electron Microscope and sample preparation techniques. Vacuum techniques, Production of vacuum (Vacuum pumps), Measurements of vacuum (Gauges), Leak detection.

Recommended Books:

  1. B.D. Cullity, Elements of X-ray Diffraction, Published by Addison-Wesley Publ. Co. Inch. USA, latest edition.
  2. B.D. Cullity, Elements of X-ray Diffraction, Published by Addison-Wesley Publ. Co. Inch. USA latest edition.
  3. R.L. Horovitz and V. A. Johnson, (Latest Edition), Methods of Experimental Techniques, Acadmic press.
  4. D. William, (Latest Edition), Methods of Experimental Techniques, Academic press.
  5. J. Goldstein, (2003), Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysis, 3rd edition, Springer London.

PH-5006: Magnetism and Magnetic Materials

Introductory magnetism: Review of diamagnetism and paramagnetism, Pauli paramagnetism. Wave functions of magnetic ions (3d, 4f), spin-orbit coupling, crystal field effects. Ferro and Antiferromagnetism: Basic Phenomenon, Mean Field Theory, Thermodynamics of ferromagnetic systems. Quantum mechanical treatment, Exchange interactions, Indirect exchange (superexchange). Spin excitations, spin waves, magnons, application to the temperature dependences on magnetization and specific heat. Band ferromagnetism. Criteria for band ferromagnetism, examples of metallic ferromagnets. Anti-Ferromagnetism: Basic phenomenon, Mean Field treatment. Types of Antiferromagnets, Parallel and perpendicular susceptibilities, Spin flop transition. Ferrites and Applications of ferrites. Domain Structures and related properties of ferromagnets: Magnetic Anisotropy, basic phenomenology. Uniaxial, Cubic, and surface Anisotropies. Magnetization in soft and hard magnets. 

Recommended Books:

  1. J. M. D. Coey, Magnetism and magnetic materials, Cambridge University Press, latest edition.
  2. Stephen Blundell, Magnetism in Condensed Matter, Oxford Press, latest edition.
  3. Amikam Aharoni, Introduction to the theory of Ferromagnetism, Oxford Press, latest edition.
  4. R. Skomski and J. M. D. Coey, Permanent Magnetism, IOP Publishing, latest edition.
  5. A.Ahmed. El-Gendy, José M. Barandiarán and Ravi L. Hadimani, Magnetic Nanostructured Materials From Lab to Fab: Elsevier.


PH-5007: Advanced Plasma Physics

Introduction to plasma, occurrence of plasmas in nature, concept of temperature, Debye shielding, criteria for plasmas, applications of plasma. Single particle motion, motion of charged particles in uniform E and B fields, motion of charged particles in non-uniform E and B fields, motion of charged particles in time varying E and B fields, adiabatic invariants. Plasmas as fluids, relation of plasma to ordinary electromagnetic, the fluid equation of motion, equation of continuity, the complete set of fluid equations, plasma approximations. Waves in plasmas, representation of waves, group velocity, plasma oscillations, electron plasma waves, sound waves, ion waves, validity of plasma approximation, comparison of ion wave and electron wave, electrostatic electron oscillations perpendicular to B, electrostatic ion waves perpendicular to B, the lower hybrid frequency, EM waves with Bo=0, EM waves perpendicular to Bo, cutoffs and resonances, EM waves parallel to Bo, hydro-magnetic waves, magneto-sonic waves, basic nuclear fusion reaction rates and power density, radiation losses from plasmas, operational conditions, Lawson criteria, magnetic confinement fusion, inertial confinement fusion.

Recommended Books:

  1. J. A. Bittoncourt, Fundamentals of Plasma, third edition, Springer-Verlag, latest edition.
  2. P.M. Bellan, Fundamentals of Plasma, Cambridge University Press, latest edition.
  3. Francis F. Chen, Introduction to Plasma and controlled fusion, academic Press, latest edition.
  4. Peter A. Sturrock, Fundamentals of Plasma, Cambridge University Press, latest edition.
  5. R. O. Dendy, Plasma Dynamics, Clarendon Press – Oxford, latest edition.

PH-5008: Superconductivity and Applications

Historical review, the state of zero resistance, Meissner effect. Electrodynamics for zero resistance metals, the critical magnetic field, the London Theory (Review of magnetic field concepts, magnetic field units). Review of thermodynamics and the thermodynamical characterization of a metal in the superconducting state, the intermediate state, concept of coherence. Type I superconductors. Current transport in superconductors, second-order phase transitions & the Ginzburg-Landau calculation for magnetic flux penetration. Microscopic theory of superconductivity, concepts of the energy gap and Cooper pairs, introduction to the BCS theory, the superconducting ground state, long range order in solids. Identification of the BCS results with experimental determination of the critical field, critical temperature and the heat capacity; quantum interference, the fluxoid. The mixed state and type-II superconductors, concept of the vortex, critical fields; critical-state models of Beam and Kim et al, flux-flow resistivity; critical currents; flux pinning, creep and flow; thin films; two-fluid model, high frequency effects and microwave surface resistance. Normal and superconductive tunneling, quasiparticle tunneling, Josephson tunneling, the Ambegaokar - Baratoff critical current, weak-links, the SQUID. Superconducting materials; the A15-type compounds; the high T c ceramic superconductors, physical properties of high Tc materials - "the good and the bad"; new topics in superconductivity; novel superconductors; safety considerations.                          

Recommended Books:

  1. F. Kristian, S. Asle, Superconductivity: Physics and Applications,WILEY, latest edition.
  2. Nekane Guarrotxena  Research Methodology in Physics and Chemistry of Surfaces and Interfaces latest Edition.
  3. Cardwell David, S. Ginely David, Hand book of suprcondcuting materials CRC Press.

PH-5009: Optoelectronics

Wave propagation in isotropic media, lens wave guide, fundamental Gaussian Beam in a lens like medium, propagation in media with quadratic gain profile. Optical Resonator, theory of laser oscillation, electro optic modulation, optical detection, noise in optical detection. Propagation modulation and oscillation in optical dielectric wave guide.

Recommended Books:

John P. Dakin, B. Robert , Handbook of Optoelectronics: Concepts, Devices, and Techniques: CRC Press

Julian Silva, Optoelectronic devices, Techniques and applications latest edition.

Bob Tucker, Handbook of optical sensors latest edition.

RM-5010:  Research Methodology

The process of scientific research: The scientific method, research planning; the scientific explanation and demarcation criteria, characteristics of factual sciences, scientific epistemology, technology as transformational knowledge, relations between science and technology, the researcher and the structure of the research teams. Ethical aspects of the research work: Scientific ethics, axiology and ethical values of science, ethics of the researcher, personal code of conduct, internal code of conduct, conduct guidelines, ethical standards of publication, scientific fraud and malpractice; study of historical and contemporary cases. Introduction to scientific policies: Typology of research projects, strategic plans and guidelines, research products: open access publications, patents, utility models, trade secret, etc.; training of researchers, preparation of research projects, monitoring and evaluation 60025 - Research methodology in physics processes. Communication techniques: Dissemination of results, technical and scientific documents, characteristics and quality indices of journals, English usage in academic contexts, structure of scientific documents, preparation of written documents (research articles, reports), computer tools, techniques of oral presentation and defense of research works, other formats (posters, flash presentations, etc.), skills for academic writing and speaking in English, online communication technologies, evaluation procedures.

Recommended Books:

  2. Dr. R. Kumar Research Methodology: A Step-by-Step Guide for Beginners, 2nd Edition, Sage Publications latest edition.
  3. M. J. Anderson, Doe Simplified 2E: Practical Tools for Effective Experimentation, 2nd Edition, Productivity Press, latest edition.
  4. M. J Anderson and P. J. Whitcomb, RSM Simplified: Optimizing Processes Using Response Surface Methods for Design of Experiments, Productivity Press, latest edition.

TEX-5078: Functional Textile

Basics of textiles and raw materials, Preparatory processes of Spinning, Types of yams and spinning, Mathematical Modeling regarding fiber and yam properties, Woven Fabric Production, Knitted Fabric Production, Mathematical Modeling regarding fiber, yarn, and woven fabric properties, Mathematical Modeling regarding fiber, yam and knitted fabric properties, Nonwoven fabric formation and operations, Introduction to textile processing, Pretreatment and dyeing of textiles, Printing and finishing of textiles, Application of mathematical modelling in textile processing, Clothing Product design and development, Clothing preparatory processes. Clothing manufacturing processes, Applications of mathematical modeling in clothing.

Recommended Books:

  1. Y. Nawab, Textile Engineering an Introduction, latest edition.
  2. T. Gries, D. Veit and Burkhard, Textile Technology, latest edition.
  3. B Neckar, Theory of structure and mechanics of fiber assemblies, latest edition.
  4. O. Kyosev, Topology-Based Modeling of Textile Structures and Their Joint Assemblies: Principles, Algorithms and Limitations, 2018.
  5. Majumdar, Abhijit, Gupta, Deepti, Gupta, Sanjay, Functional Textiles and Clothing: Springer

  1. BS / MSc. in Physics (minimum 16 years of education) or equivalent degree with a minimum CGPA of 2.00/4.00 in semester system or 60% in annual system / Term system from an HEC recognized institute / University.
  2. The applicant must pass NTS/NTU-GAT (General) test with minimum 50/100 marks prior to apply (please see Test Banner for more information on main page of this website).
  3. The applicant must not be already registered as a student in any other academic program in Pakistan or abroad.
  4. Result waiting applicants may apply for admission, however their merit will be finalized only on submission of final BS/M.Sc or equivalent official transcript or degree.
  5. Relevant Admission Committee will determine relevancy of terminal degree and decide deficiency course/s (if any) at the time of admission interview, the detail of which will be provided to the student in his/her admission letter/email.
  6. Deficiency course/s will be treated as non-credit and qualifying course/s for which student will also pay extra dues as per fee policy. Those course/s will neither be mentioned in student’s final transcript nor will be included for calculation of CGPA. However, the student may obtain his/her a separate transcript for completion of deficiency course/s.

Note: The student will submit his/her publication from his/her thesis research work and submit to his/her supervisor. Final defense will be held after the submitted publication of student will be notified as “Under Review” or “Under Consideration” by a journal. It will be compulsory for graduate student to include his/her Supervisor’s name in his/her publication.

Admission Criteria

Admission merit list will be prepared according to the following criteria.

BS/MSc. or Equivalent  60% weightage
NTS-GAT (General)  30% weightage
Interview  10% weightage


Fee Head1st 2nd3rd4th
Admission Fee (Once) 25000 - - -
Certificate Verification Fee (Once) 2000 - - -
University Security (Refundable) 5000 - - -
Red Crescent  Donation (Once) 100 - - -
University Card Fee (Once) 300 - - -
Degree Fee (Once) - - - 5000
Tuition Fee (Per Semester) 30,000 30,000 21,000 21,000
Library Fee (Per Semester) 3000 3000 3000 3000
Examination Fee (Per Semester) 3000 3000 3000 3000
Medical Fee (Per Semester) 2000 2000 2000 2000
Student Activity Fund (Per Semester) 2000 2000 2000 2000
Endowment Fund (Per Semester) 1000 1000 1000 1000
TOTAL 73,400 41,000 32,000 37,000