|Code ||Course Title||Credit Hours
|| Research Thesis
||Total Credit Hours
TP-5001: Chemistry of Dyes and Pigments
The overall objective of this course is to give students the general description of dyes & pigments, chemistry of dyes & pigments and their synthesis on lab scale as well as on industrial scale. The students will learn the nomenclature of dyes, different chromophoric system, classification of dyes according to their chemical structure, classification of dyes based on their applications. The students will also learn the chemistry and synthesis of different types of organic, inorganic pigments and advance pigments like thermochromics and photochromic pigments. This course will also cover the synthesis and application of novel dyes with added functionality to impart UV-absorbent, antimicrobial and water repellency characteristics to the textiles.
1. The Chemistry and Application of Dyes by D. R. Waring and G. Hallas latest edition.
2. Chemistry of dyes and principles of dyeing by Shenai latest edition.
3. Colorants and Auxiliaries, Volume I & II by John Shore latest edition.
4. Handbook of Synthetic Dyes and Pigments, Volume I & II by K.M. Shah latest edition.
TP-5002: Chemistry of Fibrous Polymers
Introduction: chemical structure of natural and synthetic fibrous polymers, general polymer structures and properties (molecular size, molecular shape, intermolecular order, molecular flexibility). Fiber formation: Introduction to the types of spinning processes such as wet spinning, melt spinning, dry spinning, jet spinning. Fiber structure formation during the process of extrusion. The role of temperature, extruding speed and winding speed on the structural properties of fibers. Polyesters: Synthesis of polyesters and relation between chemical structure and properties. Polyamides: Composition and basic chemistry of polyamides, polymer chain structure, process-structure-property relationship, polyamide fiber products. Polyaramids: General characteristics of polyaramids, synthesis of ingredients for polymerization, polymerization fundamentals, fiber formation, structure-property relationship and applications, Polyolefins: Polymerization fundamentals of polyolefeins, structure-property relationship and applications, Chemical structure of carbon fibres, synthesis, polymerization, structure-properties relationship, products, applications, Monomer synthesis of polyacrylonitriles, polymerization, spinning processes, structure-properties relationship, products, applications.
1. Handbook of fibre chemistry by Menachem Lewin, 3rd Edition, CRC Press.
2. Processes of fibre formation by Zbigniew K. Walczak, Amsterdam; New York: Elsevier.
3. High performance fibres by J. W. S. Hearle, Woodhead Publishing.
TP-5003: Surface Chemistry
Introduction to surface chemistry, Capillary forces and capillarity; Laplace equation, Surface and interfacial tension phenomena and their measurement methods; Critical micelle concentration: significance and measurement; Surfactants: types, properties and applications; Adsorption and desorption on solid surfaces; Gibb’s adsorption equation; Contact angle - significance and measurement; Surface wettability, Cleaning processes – detergency; Water repellency of surfaces; Young’s Equation; Electrical aspects of surface chemistry: Electrical double layer; Stern’s double layer phenomena; Zeta potential; Electrophoresis;, Electroosmosis; Colloids: formation, characterization and stability; Surface charge and its origin on colloidal surfaces, DLVO theory of colloidal stability; Coagulation and flocculation of colloids; Emulsification phenomena, Emulsion types: Oil-in-water emulsions, water-in-oil emulsions; Emulsion formation and stability; Hydrophilic-lyophilic balance; Orientation of molecules at oil-water interface; and Emulsion technology. Surface and colloidal phenomena taking place in textile processing.
1. Surface Chemistry Essentials by K. S. Birdi, CRC Press.
2. An Introduction to Interfaces & Colloids: The Bridge to Nanoscience, by John C. Berg, World Scientific latest edition.
3. Physical Chemistry of Surfaces by Arthur W. Adamson & Alice P. Gast, Wiley-Interscience latest edition.
TP-5004: Textile Auxiliaries
This course focuses on the chemistry and mechanism of reactions of various auxiliaries used in textile industry. These auxiliaries include sizing and desizing agents, detergents, surfactants, scouring agents, bleaching agents, dyeing auxiliaries, printing chemicals and finishing agents. The students will acquire from fundamental to advanced knowledge of these textile chemical agents and their impact on environment.
1. Colorants & Auxiliaries Vol. 1 by John Shore, Society of Dyers and Colourists latest edition.
2. Colorants & Auxiliaries Vol. 2 by John Shore, Society of Dyers and Colourists latest edition.
3. Handbook on Textile Auxiliaries, Dyes and Dyes Intermediates by NPSC Board of Consultants & Engineers, Asia Pacific Business Press Inc.
TP-5005: Advanced Analytical Techniques
Introduction to different physical, chemical and mechanical characterization techniques, including XRD, SEM, TEM, NMR spectroscopy, Infrared spectroscopy, UV/Vis. spectroscopy, Mass spectroscopy, tensile testing, impact testing, bending, shear and hardness testing. The student will also learn the use of differential scanning calorimetry and zeta sizer to measure zeta potential of different textiles.
- Materials Characterization Techniques. By Sam Zhang, Lin Li and Ashok Kumar latest edition.
- Modern Spectroscopy, Fourth Edition. By J. Michael Hollas latest edition.
- Modern Textile Characterization Methods. By Mastura Raheel latest edition.
TP-5006: Coloration of Textiles
This course covers the application of different dyes on variety of textiles substrates. The students will learn the physical aspects of dyeing, the properties of polymeric fibrous based on dyeing behavior, theory of machine involved in batch-wise and continuous dyeing process, union dyeing, blend dyeing containing smart and technical textiles. The course will focus on advanced printing techniques such digital printing of textile substrates and its application. The students will also gain the knowledge of thermodynamic aspect of dyeing including adsorption isotherm. During this course, students should be able to define and optimize recipe and parameters to develop the dyeing process of particular substrate. At the end of this course the students will be able to dye different types of textiles including fibres, yarn, knitted fabric, woven fabric and technical textiles made of different fibrous materials.
- Physico-chemical Aspects of Textile Coloration. By Stephen M. Burkinshaw and Andrew Filarowski latest edition.
- Textile Dyeing and Coloration. By J. Richard Aspland latest edition.
- Blends Dyeing. By John Shore latest edition.
- Textile Printing. Revised Edition. By Leslie W C Miles latest edition.
- Digital Printing of Textiles. By H. Ujiie latest edition.
TP-5007: Functionalization of Textiles
Softening of textiles: Types of softeners, chemistry of softeners, micro and nano-emulsions of softeners, evaluation of softening of textiles. Functionalization of textiles for repellency. Crease resistant textiles: Mechanism of creasing, formaldehyde and non- formaldehyde based easy care finishes. Functionalization of textiles for flame retardancy: Mechanisms of burning, limiting oxygen index, Chemistry of flame retardants. Functionalization of textiles for soil release: mechanism of soil release finishes, Chemistry of compounds for soil release, evaluation of treated textiles. Functionalization of textiles for moisture management: Mechanism of moisture management, chemistry of moisture management finishes. Functionalization of textiles for self-cleaning and antibacterial activity: basics of lotus effect, photocatalytic self-cleaning, nanostructures and antibacterial activity. Functionalization of textiles through plasma technology: Physics and chemistry of plasma, types of plasma, various applications in textile. Functionalization of textiles through enzymes: Chemistry of enzyme treatment, applications in textiles. Functionalization through microencapsulation. Various techniques of surface functionalization such as physical vapor deposition, chemical vapor deposition, surface grafting, sol-gel deposition and layer by layer deposition.
1. Functional Finishes for Textiles by Roshan Paul, Woodhead Publishing latest edition.
2. Surface modification of textiles by Q. Wei, CRC Press latest edition.
3. Textile Finishing by Derek Heywood, Society of Dyers and Colourists latest edition.
4. Plasma Technologies for Textiles by R. Shishoo, CRC Press latest edition.
TP-5008: Sustainability in Textiles
This course covers fundamentals of sustainability and implications of materials and processes used in textile wet processing industry. The student study a range of sustainability principles that address lifecycle assessment, including eco- footprint analysis, embedded energy and environmental impact of textile dyeing and finishing processes. The students will also be introduced to sustainable textile fibers, enzyme biotechnologies for sustainable textile processing, key sustainability issues in textile dyeing and environmentally friendly plasma technologies for textiles. It also covers latest technologies for sustainable textile dyeing.
1. Detox Fashion: Sustainable Chemistry and Wet Processing by Subramanian Senthilkannan Muthu, Springer latest edition.
2. Sustainability in the Textile Industry by Subramanian Senthilkannan Muthu, Springer latest edition.
3. Sustainable Apparel by Production, Processing and Recycling by Richard, Woodhead Publishing latest edition.
4. A Novel Green Treatment for Textiles: Plasma Treatment as a Sustainable Technology by Chi-wai Kan, CRC Press latest edition.
TP-5009: Research Methodology
The overall aim of this course is to enable the students to identify a research area, identify a research problem, formulate research question, conduct literature survey, formulate research hypothesis, design research experiments, graphically present, analyses and interpret the experimental data, and draw valid conclusions. Additionally, the students will be able to write a research proposal, critically analyses research papers, and write a short literature review with proper citations and referencing. The students will practice relevant statistical tools and techniques using a statistical software package. The students will also become familiar with plagiarism and other ethical issues in research, patents, copyrights and trademarks, thesis and research paper writing styles.
1. Research Methodology: A Step-by-Step Guide for Beginners by Dr. Ranjit Kumar, Sage Publications latest edition.
2. Doe Simplified 2E: Practical Tools for Effective Experimentation by Mark J Anderson, Productivity Press latest edition.
3. RSM Simplified: Optimizing Processes Using Response Surface Methods for Design of Experiments by Mark J Anderson and Patrick J Whitcomb, Productivity Press.
4. Design and Analysis of Experiments by Douglas C. Montgomery, John Wiley & Sons latest edition.
TP-6071: Research Thesis
The Research Project module will enable the students to bring together the knowledge and skills acquired in the earlier modules to investigate a selected topic reviewing the literature, presenting seminars and preparing material in the form of a publication. The project will demonstrate the student’s capabilities to perform independently but supervised research to solve practical problems utilizing the theoretical knowledge and analytical skills attained. The overall purpose of the module is to develop in the students an understanding of the steps involved in planning and conducting a research project and in communicating the findings both orally and in writing. The project work can be undertaken in an industrial concern, where possible, ensuring both the relevance to the employer, access to appropriate facilities, and allowing sufficient time to be spent on the practical work. Alternatively, projects could be based and carried out at the university. In case of collaboration with other national and international research institutes and universities the final semester research projects can be completed at mother and collaborated organization. The Research Project module will enable the students to bring together the knowledge and skills acquired in the earlier modules to investigate a selected topic reviewing the literature, presenting seminars and preparing material in the form of a publication. The project will demonstrate the student’s capabilities to perform independently but supervised research to solve practical problems utilizing the theoretical knowledge and analytical skills attained. The overall purpose of the module is to develop in the students an understanding of the steps involved in planning and conducting a research project and in communicating the findings both orally and in writing. The project work can be undertaken in an industrial concern, where possible, ensuring both the relevance to the employer, access.to appropriate facilities, and allowing sufficient time to be spent on the practical work. Alternatively, projects could be based and carried out at the university. In case of collaboration with other national and international research institutes and universities the final semester research projects can be completed at mother and collaborated organization.