Doctoral Programs

PhD Chemistry

Program Educational Objectives (PEOs)

  • Comprehend, demonstrate and apply the principles of chemical sciences that underlie advanced chemistry in executing various physicochemical processes in potential industrial and everyday life applications.
  • Practice research and development, and disseminate knowledge, comprehension, and developments in chemistry effectively in society, the workplace, and the prestigious publication venues.
  • Adopt innovative chemical ideas and approaches, and pursue career growth as a professional chemist and an educationist.

  • An ability to apply knowledge of chemistry to address the chemical processes in industry and everyday life.
  • An ability to literature survey, identify, design, and analyze chemistry problems reaching substantiated conclusions.
  • An ability to select and apply appropriate chemistry techniques, and resources to investigate the chemical substances and processes.
  • An ability to understand the impact of chemical species on the environment and demonstrate knowledge of to need for sustainable chemical processes.
  • An ability to communicate effectively the outcomes of chemistry knowledge and research in the scientific community and society.
  • An ability to design and execute a research project as an independent researcher in a multidisciplinary environment.

Duration of the Program

  1. The period for completion of PhD program shall be 3 - 8 years, one year for 18 credit hours course work and two years for research, the period shall be counted from the commencement of course work.
  2. The maximum permissible period for submission of PhD thesis will be 16 semesters (8 Years) including course work. After 10 semesters, the scholar will cease to be the student of the university and shall not be eligible for readmission.

Semester-wise Workload

  1. The PhD candidate has to take PhD level course work of minimum 18 credit hours with the consent of his/her supervisor.
  2. The course contents are proposed by the concerned Faculty Board of Studies, recommended by the Advanced Studies and research Board (ARSB) and approved by the Academic Council.
 

First Semester

Code Course Title Credit Hours
CH-9001  Advanced Physical Chemistry  3
CH-9006  Advanced Polymer Chemistry  3
CH-9011  Advanced Applied Chemistry  3

Second Semester

Code Course Title Credit Hours
 CH-9007  Special Organic Materials  3
 CH-9009  Advanced Surface Chemistry  3
 CH-9012  Applied Environmental Chemistry  3
 

Third And Fourth Semester

Code Course Title Credit Hours
 CH-9090  Research Thesis  30
 

Research Paper Requirement

Before final submission of thsis for evaluation, the Ph.D scholar would have to publish at least one research paperfrom his/her research, as first author, in an Internationally Abstracted Journal, recognized by the HEC, Pakistan. Onlypublished paper are acceptable for award of PhD degree.

LIST OF ELECTIVE COURSES

(This list is not exhaustive and new courses can be added to this category at any time depending upon the available facilities/requirements after due approval)

S.No. Code Course Title Credit Hours
 1   CH-9001  Advanced Physical Chemistry  3
 2   CH-9002  Inorganic Materials Chemistry  3
 3   CH-9003  Physical Organic Chemistry  3
 4   CH-9004  Nuclear Magnetic Resonance in Organic Chemistry  3
 5   CH-9005  Advanced Mass Spectrometry  3
 6   CH-9006  Advanced Polymer Chemistry  3
 7   CH-9007  Special Organic Materials  3
 8   CH-9008  Advanced Photochemistry  3
 9   CH-9009  Advanced Surface Chemistry  3
 10   CH-9010  Chemistry of Advanced Composite Materials  3
 11   CH-9011  Advanced Applied Chemistry  3
 12   CH-9012  Applied Environmental Chemistry  3
 13   CH-9013  Nanochemistry  3
 14   CH-9014  Biophysical Chemistry  3
 15   CH-9015  Advanced Chemical Treatment of Textiles  3
 16   CH-9016  Advanced Textile Chemistry  3
 17   CH-9017  Advanced Analytical Techniques  3
 18   CH-9090  Research Thesis  3

Course Specifications

CH-9001: Advanced Physical Chemistry 

Chemical Thermodynamics: Thermodynamic properties interrelations: Maxwell’s equations; flow of fluids. Phase equilibrium: Non-ideal gas and liquid mixtures; chemical reaction equilibria. Chemical Kinetics: Reactions in solutions: Diffusion-controlled reactions; applications of transition state theory; solvent effects on polar and ionic reactions; salt effects on reactions. Chain reactions: Features of chain mechanisms; branching chain and oscillating reactions. Determination of reaction orders; Product catalyzed reactions; series reaction with reversible step; prior- equilibrium and improved steady-state approximation. Solutions: Interactions in solutions: multicomponent systems; preferential solvation. Solvents: Their characterization; microscopic structure of solvent and solvates. Molecular dynamics and microscopic structure; different techniques of molecular dynamical calculations. Theories and laws related to solutions. Macroscopic properties of solutions.

Recommended Books:

  1. P.W. Atkins, Physical Chemistry, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2017.
  2. I.N. Levine Physical Chemistry, McGraw Hill, New York. Latest edition.
  3. J.M. Hollas, Modern Spectroscopy, Wiley latest edition.

CH-9002: Inorganic Materials Chemistry 

Introduction to inorganic materials, Application and interpretation of powder X-ray diffraction data of materials, The synthesis of inorganic materials – Solid state reactions, Precursor, solution and sol-gel methods, Solid-gas reactions, Hydrothermal method, CVD, Aerosol process, Low temperature method, Transition metal oxides, Electronic, magnetic and optical properties of inorganic   materials, Nonstoichiometric compounds, Zeolites, intercalation in layer materials and solid electrolytes, Some recent developments in inorganic material chemistry.

Recommended Books:

  1. A.R. West, Basic Solid State Chemistry and its Applications, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 2021.
  2. L. Smart and E. Moore Solid State Chemistry, Chapman & Hall. Latest edition.
  3. A.R. West Basic Solid State Chemistry, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Latest edition.

CH-9003: Physical Organic Chemistry 

History and development: Evolution of a hybrid discipline, energy changes during chemical reactions, theory and principles related to kinetics and equilibrium processes. Correlation of structure and reactivity: Hammett equation and other linear free energy relationships. Huckel molecular orbital (HMO) method: Correlation of HMO parameters with molecular properties, alternant and nonalternant hydrocarbons and their properties. Correlation of structure and activity: Use of molecular descriptors, Hansch analysis, Craig plots, Topliss scheme in establishing SAR. FMO method: Concept of Frontier orbitals and its application for explaining chemical reactivity.

Recommended Books:

  1. Miller, Advanced Mechanisms in Organic Chemistry, Pearson Education 2021.
  2. P. Vogel and K.N. Houk. Organic Chemistry, Wiley, 2019.
  3. Williams and N. Williams. Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry, Elsevier Science 2020.

CH-9004: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance in Organic Chemistry 

Spin couplings: Spin coupling in different spin systems. Double   resonance   experiments:   Spin   decoupling in 1H- and C13- NMR spectroscopy, suppression of solvent signal, 1H BB decoupling, gated decoupling, 1H off- resonance decoupling. 1D NMR experiments with complex pulse sequence: The J-modulated spin echo, SPI, INEPT and DEPT experiments. 2D NMR Spectroscopy: Introduction, theory and presentation of 2D spectrum. 2D J-resolved NMR spectroscopy: Homo- and hetero-nuclear 2D J-resolved NMR spectroscopy. 2D shift-correlated NMR spectroscopy: H,H-COSY, H,C-COSY, NOESY, ROESY, HMBC, HMQC and TOCSY experiments. Applications: NMR use as a tool for structure elucidation and stereochemical assignments.

Recommended Books:

  1. J.B. Lambert, E.P. Mazzola, C.D. Ridge, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: An Introduction to Prin ciples, Applications, and Experimental Methods. , John Wiley & sons Inc., USA 2018.
  2. H. Friebolin Basic one-and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy, Wiley-VCH, New York. latest edition.
  3. R. M. Silverstein, F. X. Webster and D. J. Kiemle Spectrometric identification of organic compounds, John Wiley & sons Inc., USA latest edition.

CH-9005: Advanced Mass Spectrometry 

Introduction: Aims and scope, theory and basic terminology. Instrumentation: Instrumental design, ionization techniques, types of analyzers and detectors. Applications: Modes of fragmentation of various organic compounds, interpretation of mass spectra of unknown organic compounds.

Recommended Books:

  1. M. Smoluch, G. Grosso, P. Suder and J. Silbering. Mass Spectrometry an Applied Approach, John Wiley & Sons, New York 2019.
  2. C.G. Herbert and D.P. Schulz Mass Spectrometry Basics, Taylor & Francis, New York. latest edition.
  3. E. Hoffman and V. Stroobant. Mass Spectrometry, Principles & Applications, Wiley, latest edition.

CH-9006: Advanced Polymer Chemistry 

Mechanism and kinetics: Step growth, free radical addition polymerization, ionic polymerization, Ziegler- Nattapolymerization. Molecular weight determination: Different methods used to determine the absolute and relative molecular weights of polymers. Structure- property relationship. Reactions of synthetic polymers. Polymer degradation and stability: Special emphasis on thermal and photo-degradation. Polymer interactions. Polymer solutions: Expansion factor in solutions; physical parameters affecting the chain dimensions; theta conditions. Theories of polymer solutions; phase separation and fractionation; solubility parameters; criteria for solubility. The polymerization processes and techniques, polymer additives (plasticizers, stabilizers and fillers). Polymers characterization.

Recommended Books:

  1. H. Hemandez and K. Tauer. Heterophase Polymerization: Basic Concepts and Principles, jenny Stanford Publishing. 2021.
  2. S. Koltzenberg, M. Moskos and O. Nuyken Polymer Chemistry, Springer, latest edition.
  3. A. Ravve, Principles of Polymer Chemistry, Springer Science, latest edition.

CH-9007: Special Organic Materials 

Organic dyes: Chromophore structure, synthesis of azodyes and cyanins, reactive vs. direct textile dyes, Chemiluminescence, photochromocs, color photography. Liquid Crystals: definition, classification: thermotropic/lyotropic, calamitic/discotic, nematic/ smectic columnar, synthesis and orientation, liquid crystal displays (LCD’s), liquid crystal polymers. Electronic materials: Types of organic semi-conductors, polyacetylenes, and polyparaphenylenes, band structure, synthesis, electroluminescence and light emitting diodes (LED’s).

Recommended Books:

  1. K.Hunger and M.U. Schmidt, Industrial Organic Pigments: Production, Crystal Structures, Properties, Applications, Wiley-VCH; 2019.
  2. K.H. Klaus. Industrial Dyes, Wiley-VCH, Verlag, GmbH & Co. latest edition.
  3. P.J. Collings and J.W.G. Goodby. Introduction to Liquid Crystals: Chemistry and Physics, CRC Press, 2019.

CH-9008: Advanced Photochemistry

Principles of photochemistry: Primary and secondary chemical processes. Electron transfer in photochemistry: Collisional and coulombic modes, effect of temperature, eximers and exiplexes, the SET photochemistry, quantum yields. Kinetics and energetic of photochemical reactions: Mechanism of photochemical reactions, intersystem crossing, flash photolysis, mass spectrometric methods. Experimental methods in photochemistry: Low, medium and high pressure mercury lamps, resonance lamps, actinometers, phototubes, sources of high intensity flashes of light, laser and synchrotron radiations. Photolytic studies: Aqueous and non-aqueous systems, effects of radiations on solids. Applications in daily life and industry: Picosecond and femtosecond flash photolysis, Supramolecular photochemistry.

Recommended Books:

  1. M. Persico and G. Granucci. Photochemistry: A Modern Theoretical Perspective (Theoretical Chemistry andComputational Modelling), Springer 2018.
  2. R.C. Evans, P. Douglas and H.D. Burrows. Applied Photochemistry, Springer, latest edition.
  3. B. Wardle, Principles and Applications of Photochemistry, Wiley, latest edition.

CH-9009: Advanced Surface Chemistry

Solid-liquid interface: Wetting, heat of wetting, thermodynamic description of an interface, Gibbs-Duhem equation for an interphase, Gibbs adsorption isotherm, adsorption from solutions (dilute, liquid mixtures, non- electrolytes, electrolytes, etc.) at solid- liquid interface, detergency and flotation. Study of liquid interfaces: Kelvin’s and Laplace equations. Technical catalysis: Catalyst preparation techniques, catalytic reactors, supported metal catalysts, industrial applications of heterogeneous catalysts. Catalysis for steam-reforming, CO- & CO2- methanation, water-gas shift, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis reactions. Catalysts for syntheses of: ammonia, nitric acid, chemical fertilizers etc.

Recommended Books:

  1. B. Korenberg, K. HolmbergB. Lindman. Surface Chemistry of Surfactants and Polymers, John Wiley & Sons 2017.
  2. K.S. Birdi, Surface Chemistry Essentials, CRC Press Taylor and Francis, latest edition.
  3. G.M. Kontogeorgis and S. Kiil. Introduction to Applied Colloid and Surface Chemistry, Wiley, 2016.

CH-9010: Chemistry Advanced Composite Materials

Introduction: Definitions and classification of composite materials, natural composites, property enhancement by reinforcement and orientation, matrix interface, synthetic fibers, processing of composites. Examples: Metallic, ceramic and polymeric matrices, interface reactions. Properties: Mechanical and thermal properties of composite materials, stress relaxation and creep studies, dynamical mechanical properties, toughening mechanisms and mechanical failure in polymeric composites.

Recommended Books:

  1. K.K. Chawla. Composite Materials: Science and Engineering, Springer 2021.
  2. P.K. Mallick. Processing of Polymer Matrix Composites, CRC Press, 2017.
  3. R.M. Wang, S.R. Zheng, Y.G. Zheng. Polymer Matrix Composites and Technology, Elsevier Science, 2016.

CH-9011: Advanced Applied Chemistry

The importance of chemical industries for the economic development of Pakistan; chemistry of ceramics and its processing; the agrochemical industry; chemistry of structural adhesives; dyes and pigments; chemistry of silicone technology; chemistry of fuel technology; corrosion; quality control (analytical and statistical). Various aspects of the energy and raw material supply, cost calculations to improve yield and to reduce pollution. Industrial techniques and quality control. Equipment for large-scale manufacturing. Conversion of a lab. process to a pilot plant and then plant procedure. Industrial catalysis. Inorganic and organic processes. Products of fermentation process. Preparation of chemical products from small molecules. Pesticides, herbicides and pharmaceuticals. The environmental impact of a process.

Recommended Books:

  1. S. Kaliaguine and J-L.Dubois, Industrial Green Chemistry, de Gruyter, 2020.
  2. D. Erwin. Industrial Chemical Process Design, Mc. Graw Hill Education, latest edition.
  3. R.J. Farrauto, L. Dorazio and C.H. Bartholomew. Introduction to Catalysis and Industrial Catalytic Processes, Wiley, 2016.

CH-9012: Applied Environmental Chemistry

Atmospheric Chemistry: Atmospheric structure: Natural constituents, anthropogenic emissions and atmospheric pollution. Air quality criteria pollutants: Sources, dispersion models and sinks of atmosphericpollutants. Measurement and monitoring methods: Gaseous pollutants and particulate matter in the atmosphere, dry and wet depositions. Photochemical smog-formation: Types and effects. Acid rain: Causes, effects and control. Ozone Chemistry: Stratospheric ozone production and depletion, causes and significance of ozone hole, catalytic and non-catalytic processes, effects of UV on the biosphere. Global warming: Greenhouse gases, production, control and future trends of greenhouse gases, consequences of global warming. Control management: Standards and legislation regarding the atmospheric pollution. Aqueous Chemistry: Aquatic environment: hydrological cycle, water quality criteria, physical, chemical and biological characteristics of water, utilization, contamination and protection of water resources, collection and preservation of water samples. Physico-chemical analysis of water: Fresh water bodies, stratification and turn-over. Water pollution: Soap, detergents and agricultural sprays. Water management: Policies and tools. Deposition of sediments: Trace metals in the hydrocycle and sediments, quantification of environmental impact in sediments.

Recommended Books:

  1. O. Lahay and I.Birmhack, Aquatic Chemistry: For Water and Wastewater Treatment Applications, de Gruyter, 2019.
  2. R.M. Harrison An Introduction to Pollution Science, The Royal Society of Chemistry, UK. latest edition.
  3. S.E. Manahan. Environmental Science and Technology, Lewis Publishers, New York latest edition.

CH-9013: Nanochemistry

Nanomaterials: Classification; structure and bonding; size dependent properties of mater; arrangements in 3D, 2D and.1D. Specific heats and melting points of nano-crystalline materials. Semiconductor nanocrystals: Spinels; quantum dots. Alloy semicondictors and their synthesis. Metal nanoparticles, double layers. Nanoparticle stability; charge transfer. Optical properties: Light absorption by colloids; dielectric response; size effects, electron transfer; temperature effects. Magnetism: Magnetic susceptibility and permeability: diamagnetism; paramagnetism; Langevin model; quantum effects. Ferromagnetism, Curie-Weiss law. Antiferro- magnetism: Ferri-magnetism. Magnetic anisotropy. Magnetic domains. Hysteresis. Super-paramagnetism. Nanomaterials synthesis: Chemical and catalytic aspects of nanocrystals. Nanotechnology: Synthesis techniques. Applications.

Recommended Books:

  1. A.da-Silva and T.Trindade, Surface Chemistry of Colloidal Nanocrystals, RSC, UK. 2021.
    1. G.A. Ozin, A.C. Arenault and L. Cademartiri. Nanochemistry: A Chemical Approach to Nanomaterials, RSC Publishing, Cambridge latest edition.
    2. B.S. Vasile. Synthesis, Processing and Application of Micro and Nanostructured Materials, MDPI. 2020

CH-9014: Biophysical Chemistry

Thermodynamic aspects: Simple molecules, macromolecules, colloidal particles in solution. Bioenergetics: Association of biopolymers. Lipids and biological membranes: Membrane transport, membrane potential. Characterization of Macromolecules: Moving-boundary sedimentation,zonal sedimentation, density gradient sedimentation,viscosity measurement, electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing. Structure of proteins and nucleic acids: Folding/unfolding of proteins and nucleic acids. Enzymology: Kinetics of enzyme catalysis, mechanismsof enzyme catalysis. Experimental techniques: Protein NMR, MRI, X-ray crystallography of proteins, electron microscopy of macromolecular assemblies.

Recommended Books:

  1. T.M. Nordlund and P.M. Hoffmann, Quantitative Understanding of Biosystems: An Introduction to Biophys ics, (Foundations of Biochemistry and Biophysics), CRC press 2021.
  2. B. Nölting, Methods in Modern Biophysics, Springer Verlag, Berlin latest edition.
  3. G.S. Rule and T.K. Hitachens. Fundamentals of Protein NMR Spectroscopy, Springer Verlag, Berlin latest edition.

CH-9015: Advanced Chemical Treatment of Textiles

This course includes the detailed study of different chemical treatments of textile materials including pre- treatments, coloration, modification along withcomprehensive study of synthetic chemistry of different chemicals used in textile processing. The course also includes the characterization of treated textile materials using advanced analytical techniques.

Recommended Books:

  1. M. Raheel Modern Textile Characterization Methods, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, 2019.
  2. W. E. Morton and J. W. S. Hearle. Physical Properties of Textile Fibres, Woodhead Publishing Limited latest edition.
  3. H. Zollinger Color Chemistry: Synthesis, Properties and Applications of Organic Dyes, Wiley-VCH latest edition.

CH-9016: Advanced Textile Chemistry

Chromophore structure; synthesis and a p p l i c a t i o n s of azo, anthraquinones, phthalocyanines, vat, indigo polymethine and nitro dyes; Reactive vs. direct textile dyes, Chemiluminescence, photochromocs, color photography; high technology applications. Textilesurface modifications; Multifunctional finishing; Textilesurface characterization; Development of textiles fortechnical applications.

Recommended Books:

  1. T.Bechtold and T. Pham Textile Chemistry de Grutyer, 2019
  2. Abbott and M. Ellison. Biologically inspired textiles, Woodhead Publishing Limited, latest edition.
  3. H. Zollinger. Color Chemistry: Synthesis, Properties and Applications of Organic Dyes, Wiley-VCH latest edition.

CH-9017: Advanced Analytical Techniques

Diffraction methods: Origin of X-ray spectra: Energy levels, Moseley’s law. The absorption spectrum: Mass absorption coefficient. Instrumentation: X-ray generation, sources, wavelength dispersive devices, energy dispersive devices, detectors, sample preparation methods, working principle, analytical applications of X-ray absorption, X-ray fluorescence, particle induced X-ray emission, auger emission spectroscopy. Introduction, single crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) of small molecules and macromolecules including natural systems, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) of small molecules and macromolecules, measurement of lattice parameters, measurement of B- values, determination of space group, calculation of electron density map. Electron microscopy: Introduction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), measurement of I/Q values, single particle 3-D reconstruction. Thermal Analysis: Theory and instrumentation: Thermogravimetry (TG), differential thermal analysis (DTA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Quantitative interpretation: TGA, DTA and DSC curves. Kinetic and thermodynamic parameters. Applications: DTA, TGA in cements, catalysts, clays, minerals, biological materials, drugs, polymers and textiles.

Recommended Books:

  1. C.S.Patil, Advanced Analytical Techniques, Oxford Book Company, 2017.
  2. R. Wolstenholme, S. Jickells, S. Forbes. Analytical Techniques in Forensic Science, Wiley, 2021.
  3. R. Duarte and A.C. Duarte. Multidimensional Analytical Techniques in Environmental Research, Elsevier Science, 2020.

  • MS/M.Phil or equivalent degree in Chemistry/Applied Chemistry/Industrial Chemistry/ Textile Chemistry/Forensic Chemistry/Biochemistry/Polymer Science and Engineering/Material Science and Engineering/Environmental Science and Engineering/Nanotechnology/ Biotechnology/Chemical Technology and Engineering/Textile Processing with minimum CGPA 3.00/4.00 or 3.50/5.00 in semester system or 60%marks in annual system.
  • The applicant must pass NTU-GAT (Subject) test with a minimum 70% score as per HEC.
  • It is mandatory to pass admission interview to compete on merit.
  • Applicant must not be already registered as a student in any other academic program in Pakistan or abroad.
  • Applicants having MS without thesis are not eligible to apply.

Admission Procedure

  1. The admission merit list will be prepared according to the following criteria:
 Phd Chemistry
 M.Sc./MS/Equivalent  50% weightage
 B.Sc./BE/Equivalent  30% weightage
 Interview result  10% weightage
 Publication/relevant experience  10% weightage

NOTE: Result waiting applicants may apply for admission, however their merit will be finalized only on submission of final MS/M.Phil or equivalent official transcript or degree.

SEMESTER-WISE PAYMENT IN PAK RUPEES

Fee Head1st 2nd3rd4th5th6th
Tuition Fee 30000 30000 21000 21000 21000 21000
Admission Fee 20000 - - - - -
Degree Fee - - - - - -
Certificate Verification Fee 2000 - - - - -
Processing Fee - 5000 - - - -
University Security 5000 - - - - -
Red Crescent  Donation 100 - - - - -
University Card Fee 300 - - - - -
Library Fee 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000
Examination Fee 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000
Medical Fee 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000
Student Activity Fund - - - - - -
Endowment Fund - - - - - -
TOTAL 65400 43000 29000 29000 29000 29000